30 December 2022, Energies, 16(1), 442.

Różycki, R., Józefowska, J., Kurowski, K., Lemański, T., Pecyna, T., Subocz, M., & Waligóra, G

A Quantum Approach to the Problem of Charging Electric Cars on a Motorway

Keywords: electric motor vehicle; battery charging; power; energy; scheduling; parallel unrelated machines; quantum computing; quantum approximate optimization algorithm; quantum annealing

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In this paper, the problem of charging electric motor vehicles on a motorway is considered. Charging points are located alongside the motorway. It is assumed that there are a number of vehicles on a given section of a motorway. In the motorway, there are several nodes, and for each vehicle, the entering and the leaving nodes are known, as well as the time of entrance. For each vehicle, we know the total capacity of its battery, and the current amount of energy in the battery when entering the motorway. It is also assumed that for each vehicle, there is a finite set of speeds it can use when traveling the motorway. The speed is chosen when entering the motorway, and cannot be changed before reaching the charging station. For each speed, there is given a corresponding power usage; the higher the speed, the larger the power usage. Each vehicle can only use one charger, and when its battery is full, the amount of energy is sufficient for reaching the outgoing node. We look for a feasible solution to the problem, i.e., a solution in which no vehicle has to wait for a charger. The problem is formulated as a problem of scheduling independent, nonpreemptable jobs in parallel, unrelated machines under an additional doubly constrained resource, which is power. Quantum approaches to solve the defined problem are proposed. They use the quantum approximate optimization algorithm and the quantum annealing technique. A computational experiment is presented and discussed. Some conclusions and directions for future research are given.